In this research, we will first look for a “lay-definition” of poverty and wealth. Afterwards this definition will be compared with the definition selected from the literature. Furthermore, we will outline the attitudes toward the poor and the rich and the attributions of poverty and wealth. To do so we make use of focus-groups and interviews, taken from a sample consisting of people with a low, medium and high income. After this qualitative research, the attitudes toward the poor and the rich and the attributions of poverty and wealth, will be quantified using survey-research. Finally, it will be investigated whether these lay theories are a valid representation of the social reality. Therefore, we will explore financial behaviour (financial management)as a determinant of poverty and wealth, as well as a number of other psychological (e.g. self-esteem), economical (e.g. financial exclusion),social (e.g. materialism, social reference) and cultural (e.g. Protestant Work Ethic) factors. The relative importance of these determinants will be explored in an integrated model. Because different people act differently in the same economic situations, it is necessary to incorporate these determinants in order to better comprehend social inequality. For this part of the research, we make use of different methods, i.e. questionnaires and a diary.