The social and cognitive brain brings together experts in the field of the study of the social brain and its cognitive underpinnings. One of the major breakthroughs of the prior SRP was the discovery of the social cerebellum, a much neglected part of the brain that seems to be responsible for adequate sequencing of (social) actions, and thus may play an important part in social understanding. Apart from more general lines of research on the long-term, in the next 5 years this SRP focuses on the social cerebellum and its exact role in action sequencing, and the underlying cognitive mechanisms in sequencing. For these fundamental questions, we use the most advanced techniques and methods in neuroimaging and neuro-analysis. Moreover, the fundamental insights gained from this fundamental research are applied on patient groups with sequencing deficiencies in social behavior (autism spectrum disorders) and motion (Parkinson’s disease). Is the cerebellum indeed responsible for these deficiencies, and can these be alleviated by using new technologies at the forefront of brain research: brain stimulation, coupled with novel behavioral / psychological therapies (i.e., cognitive rehabilitation and psychotherapy) that make effective use of the novel theoretical insights gained about the cerebellum?