3D-Printed Biomaterial Testing in Response to Cryoablation: Implications for Surgical Ventricular Tachycardia Ablation

Mara Candelari, Ida Anna Cappello, Luigi Pannone, Cinzia Monaco, Edoardo Bori, Giacomo Talevi, Robbert Ramak, Mark La Meir, Ali Gharaviri, Gian Battista Chierchia, Carlo de Asmundis, Bernardo Innocenti

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Background: The lack of thermally and mechanically performant biomaterials represents the major limit for 3D-printed surgical guides, aimed at facilitating complex surgery and ablations. Methods: Cryosurgery is a treatment for cardiac arrhythmias. It consists of obtaining cryolesions, by freezing the target tissue, resulting in selective and irreversible damage. MED625FLX and TPU95A are two biocompatible materials for surgical guides; however, there are no data on their response to cryoenergy delivery. The study purpose is to evaluate the biomaterials' thermal properties, examining the temperature changes on the porcine muscle samples (PMS) when the biomaterials are in place during the cryoablation. Two biomaterials were selected, MED625FLX and TPU95A, with two thicknesses (1.0 and 2.5 mm). To analyze the biomaterials' behavior, the PMS temperatures were measured during cryoablation, firstly without biomaterials (control) and after with the biomaterials in place. To verify the biomaterials' suitability, the temperatures under the biomaterial samples should not exceed a limit of -30.0 °C. Furthermore, the biomaterials' geometry after cryoablation was evaluated using the grid paper test. Results: TPU95A (1.0 and 2.5 mm) successfully passed all tests, making this material suitable for cryoablation treatment. MED625FLX of 1.0 mm did not retain its shape, losing its function according to the grid paper test. Further, MED625FLX of 2.5 mm is also suitable for use with a cryoenergy source. Conclusions: TPU95A (1.0 and 2.5 mm) and MED625FLX of 2.5 mm could be used in the design of surgical guides for cryoablation treatment, because of their mechanical, geometrical, and thermal properties. The positive results from the thermal tests on these materials and their thickness prompt further clinical investigation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1036
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of clinical medicine
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 29 Jan 2023

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© 2023 by the authors.

Copyright 2023 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • 3D surgical guide
  • arrhythmia treatment
  • biomaterial tests
  • cryoablation


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