The 3Rs concept, calling for replacement, reduction and refinement of animal experimentation, is receiving increasing attention around the world, and has found its way to legislation, in particular in the European Union. This is aligned by growing efforts of the European Commission to support development and implementation of 3Rs methods. The present paper gives an overview of European 3Rs initiatives as part of the different pillars of the Horizon 2020 framework program for research and innovation. Focus is hereby put on projects that address the 3Rs concept in the context of toxicity testing, chemical risk assessment and disease modeling.
Bibliographical noteCopyright © 2020 Vinken.
- Horizon 2020
- in silico
- in vitro