A Comprehensive Review of GaN-Based Bi-directional On-Board Charger Topologies and Modulation Methods

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The wide-scale adoption and accelerated growth of electric vehicle (EV) use and increasing demand for faster charging necessitate the research and development of power electronic converters to achieve high-power, compact, and reliable EV charging solutions. Although the fast charging concept is often associated with off-board DC chargers, the importance of on-board AC fast charging is undeniable with the increasing battery capacities. This article comprehensively reviews gallium nitride (GaN) semiconductor-based bidirectional on-board charger (OBC) topologies used in both 400 V and 800 V EV applications. Moreover, comparative evaluations of GaN-based bi-directional OBC topologies regarding power conversion losses (conduction loss and soft switching capabilities), power density, implementation considerations, power quality, electromagnetic interference, and reliability aspects have been presented. The status of commercially available GaN power modules, advancements in GaN technology, applicable industry standards, and application requirements for OBCs have been also included in this study. Finally, in light of forthcoming advancements in GaN power transistor technology, this study highlights potential areas of research related to the reviewed topologies. Such research can aid researchers and designers in improving the performance and user experience of electric vehicles, ultimately supporting the widespread adoption of EVs.
Original languageEnglish
Article number3433
Number of pages45
JournalEnergies Journal- Special Issue "Recent Power Electronics and Control Systems For (Plug-In) Electric (Hybrid) Vehicles (Volume II)"
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 13 Apr 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by project Highly EFFICIENT and reliable electric drivetrains based on modular, intelligent, and highly integrated wide bandgap power electronics modules. This project has received funding from the ECSEL Joint Undertaking (JU) under grant agreement no. 101007281. The JU receives support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme and Austria, Germany, Slovenia, The Netherlands, Belgium, Slovakia, France, Italy, and Turkey.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.

Copyright 2023 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • on-board charger
  • GaN
  • AC/DC
  • DC/DC
  • electric vehicle
  • modulation
  • vehicle-to-grid (V2G)
  • topologies


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