A D-Band Low-Power and High-Efficiency Frequency Multiply-by-9 FMCW Radar Transmitter in 28-nm CMOS

Sehoon Park, Dae-Woong Park, Kristof Vaesen, Anirudh Kankuppe, Siddhartha Sinha, Barend van Liempd, Piet Wambacq, Jan Craninckx

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


This article presents a 135–155-GHz low-power and high-efficiency frequency multiply-by-9 (x9) frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radar transmitter (TX). Starting from a 16-GHz frequency-chirping input signal, cascaded frequency triplers at V -band (40–75 GHz) and D -band (110–170 GHz) bring the signal to the D -band, subsequently amplified and radiated via a power amplifier (PA) and an on-chip antenna at D -band. The D -band PA with a reduced gain of transistors at fmax /2 proposes a broadband gain-boosting technique, achieving a maximum achievable gain ( Gmax ) for broad frequency range with high-order embedding passives. The x9 chain proposes phase-controlled frequency triplers that align the phase of each harmonic contribution and boost the third harmonic output power, conversion gain, and dc-to-RF efficiency. Implemented in a 28-nm CMOS process, the TX achieves a measured effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP) of 9.4 dBm, a dc-EIRP efficiency of 16.6% while exhibiting an antenna gain de-embedded output power of 7.1 dBm, and a dc-to-RF efficiency of 9.7% with less than 77-mW dc power consumption.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2114-2129
Number of pages16
JournalIEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2022

Bibliographical note

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  • Radar
  • Radar antennas
  • Gain
  • Transistors
  • System-on-chip
  • Radar cross-sections
  • Dipole antennas
  • Amplifier
  • CMOS
  • dual-peak
  • frequency tripler
  • frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radar transmitter (TX)
  • gain boosting
  • maximum achievable gain (Gmax)
  • terahertz (THz)


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