A novel multinuclear solid-state NMR approach for the characterization of kidney stones

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The spectroscopic study of pathological calcifications (including kidney stones) is extremely rich and helps to improve the understanding of the physical and chemical processes associated with their formation. While Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) imaging and optical/electron microscopies are routine techniques in hospitals, there has been a dearth of solid-state NMR studies introduced into this area of medical research, probably due to the scarcity of this analytical technique in hospital facilities. This work introduces effective multinuclear and multidimensional solid-state NMR methodologies to study the complex chemical and structural properties characterizing kidney stone composition. As a basis for comparison, three hydrates (n=1, 2 and 3) of calcium oxalate are examined along with nine representative kidney stones. The multinuclear magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR approach adopted investigates the 1H, 13C, 31P and 31P nuclei, with the 1H and 13C MAS NMR data able to be readily deconvoluted into the constituent elements associated with the different oxalates and organics present. For the first time, the full interpretation of highly resolved 1H NMR spectra is presented for the three hydrates, based on the structure and local dynamics. The corresponding 31P MAS NMR data indicates the presence oflow-level inorganic phosphate species; however, the complexity of these data make the precise identification of the phases difficult to assign. This work provides physicians, urologists and nephrologists with additional avenues of spectroscopic investigation to interrogate this complex medical dilemma that requires real, multitechnique approaches to generate effective outcomes.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)653–671
Number of pages19
JournalMagnetic Resonance
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 20 Aug 2021


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