Aluminum alloys used for aerospace applications provide good strength to weight ratio at a reasonable cost but exhibit only limited corrosion resistance. Therefore, a durable and effective corrosion protection system is required to fulfil structural integrity. Typically, an aerospace corrosion protection system consists of a multi-layered scheme employing an anodic oxide with good barrier properties and a porous surface, a corrosion inhibited organic primer, and an organic topcoat. The present review covers published research on the anodic oxide protection layer principles and requirements for aerospace application, the effect of the anodizing process parameters, as well as the importance of process steps taking place before and after anodizing. Moreover, the challenges of chromic acid anodizing (CAA) substitution are discussed and tartaric-sulfuric acid anodizing (TSA) is especially highlighted among the environmentally friendly alternatives.