While the roles of parenchymal microglia in brain homeostasis and disease are fairly clear, other brain resident myeloid cells remain less understood. By dissecting border regions and combining single-cell RNA sequencing with high-dimensional cytometry, bulk RNA-sequencing, fate-mapping and microscopy, we reveal the diversity of non-parenchymal brain macrophages. Border-associated macrophages (BAMs) residing in the dura mater, subdural meninges and choroid plexus consisted of distinct subsets with tissue specific transcriptional signatures, and their cellular composition changed during postnatal development. BAMs exhibited a mixed ontogeny and subsets displayed distinct self-renewal capacities upon depletion and repopulation. Single-cell and fate-mapping analysis both suggested there is a unique microglial subset residing on the apical surface of the choroid plexus epithelium. Finally, gene network analysis and conditional deletion revealed IRF8 as a master regulator that drives the maturation and diversity of brain macrophages. Our results provide a framework for understanding host-macrophage interactions in the healthy and diseased brain.