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The advantages of Energy Communities (ECs) range from giving energy end-consumers an active role in the energy market to the increase of renewable energy sources and increased efficiency. Yet, the emergence of ECs is not taking place across countries and regions at the same scale or speed. Reasons for this were studied but remain fragmented, as a comprehensive overview of these studies is missing. This study aims to identify the studied factors for the emergence of ECs. We used the Multi-Level Perspective as a framework to structure EC literature. Therefore, a systematic literature review was conducted to identify the gaps. The review consists of a 1) bibliometric analysis, 2) content analysis, 3) geographic analysis. Building on this overview, the authors highlight the current research gap and propose potential pathways for future research to facilitate the diffusion of ECs. It was found that although ECs are studied context-specific, generic factors have contributed to the emergence of ECs independently from their location, such as appropriate policy schemes and support for practitioners. Factors, such as the geographies of the transition, and cognitive-cultural factors remain less studied.

Original languageEnglish
Article number112479
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalRenewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2022


  • Drivers
  • Energy communities
  • Energy transition
  • Multi-level perspective
  • Systematic literature review


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