Nowadays, the use of electric vehicles (EVs) equipped with lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries, has been growing every day. Li-ion batteries' performance, effectiveness, and safety importantly depend on thermal management systems (TMSs). In this paper, a novel and advanced hybrid TMS for cooling the battery module, using phase change material (PCM) and liquid cooling, has been experimentally studied. Passive PCM heat buffer plate and liquid cooling plates are connected from down and lateral sides, respectively. Cooling with natural convection could not preserve the module temperature in the desired operational temperature at fast charging. The average module temperature for the charging and discharging process reaches 41.4 °C and 43 °C respectively. The results display the module temperature equipped with a PCM heat buffer plate at the end of the charging and discharging process reaches 35.8 °C and 36.2 °C which experience a 13.3% and 15.8% temperature reduction, respectively. Using the hybrid cooling system, the module temperature at the end of the charging and discharging process reaches 31.2 °C and 31.8 °C which experience a 24.6% and 26% temperature reduction compared with natural convection. Moreover, using the hybrid cooling system the temperature uniformity has been improved by 56% and 34.8% for the charging and discharging process, respectively.
Original languageEnglish
Article number101938
JournalCase Studies in Thermal Engineering
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2022


  • Lithium-titanate-oxide (LTO) battery
  • Thermal management system (TMS)
  • Phase change material (PCM)
  • Liquid cooling system
  • Hybrid cooling system


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