Ageing and Degradation of Lithium-ion Batteries

Noshin Omar, Yousef Firouz, Jean-Marc Timmermans, Peter Van Den Bossche, Joeri Van Mierlo, Hamid Gualous, Justin Salminen, Tanja Kallio

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterResearchpeer-review


Performance, lifetime, and cost of hybrid electric vehicles and similar applications requiring peak power are directly affected by the battery lifetime, performance, cost and reliability. Different types of rechargeable energy storage systems exist on the market but none can fulfill all the demands but are specific for the application and uses. The performances of lithium-ion battery technologies are strongly affected by the environmental conditions e.g. operating temperature and affecting cycling behavior, side reactions resulting capacity losses. The ageing degradation and reduction of the battery lifetime is subject to non-linear phenomena influenced by temperature and another operational conditions.
This chapter focuses on the degradation mechanisms inside lithium iron phosphate batteries (7Ah cells) at different storage temperatures (60°C, 40°C, 25°C, 10°C, 0°C, -10°C) and state of charge levels (100 %, 75 %, 50 %, 25 %).
From the experimental results, one can observe that the capacity degradation is considerably higher at higher storage temperatures (e.g. 60°C and 40°C) compared to lower temperatures. The higher capacity degradation is related to the parasitic reactions that occur at higher temperatures, whereby loss of active material and lithium-ion becomes determining factors. This observation has been confirmed by the increase of the internal resistance, whereby the main contributor is the growth of the solid electrolyte interface (SEI).
Further, the experimental results show that higher state of charge levels have a negative impact on the battery capacity degradation compared to lower state of charge levels (e.g. 25 %).
From the performed analysis, one can conclude that a lithium-ion battery should be kept in a temperature range lower than 40°C and 75 % SoC during its calendar life for guaranteeing long lifetime of the battery.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationRechargeable lithium batteries
Subtitle of host publicationFrom fundamentals to applications
EditorsAlejandro Franco
Place of PublicationCambridge
PublisherWoodhead Publishing
Number of pages17
ISBN (Electronic)9781782420989
ISBN (Print)9781782420903
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2015


  • Lithium iron phosphate battery
  • Calendar life
  • Testing
  • Aging
  • Performances
  • Resistance


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