Agricultural pesticide regulatory environment for pollinator protection across geographical regions

Ngoc T. Phan, Edwin G. Rajotte, Guy Smagghe, Zong Xin Ren, David J. Biddinger, Neelendra K. Joshi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The alarming decline of pollinator populations has raised significant concerns worldwide and prompted the need for effective pesticide risk assessment within the Integrated Pest and Pollinator Management (IPPM) framework. This paper examines the diverse approaches to pollinator protection within the pesticide regulatory environments of the United States (US), the European Union (EU), and selected Asian countries. The US adopts a reactive approach, regulating pesticides only after evidence of harm emerges, while the EU embraces a proactive stance under the precautionary principle. The EU has implemented stringent regulations, including neonicotinoid bans, and conducts coordinated research on pesticide impacts. In contrast, some Asian countries face challenges with inadequate regulations, leading to adverse health and environmental consequences. This article highlights the need for comprehensive pesticide regulations across different regions to safeguard pollinators and mitigate the non-target risks associated with pesticide use.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1241601
Number of pages8
JournalFrontiers in Sustainable Food Systems
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors thank the Penn State Department of Entomology and the University of Arkansas Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology for their support. NP was thankful to Dr. Thai Hong Pham—Research Center for Tropical Bees and Beekeeping (Vietnam) for providing valuable Asian pesticide information. The authors are extremely grateful to the editor and the reviewers for their insightful comments on this article.

Funding Information:
This work was supported in part by a USDA-SCRI Research and Extension grant (PEN04398, DB and ER, PDs) on native pollinators, a USDA-NRCS Conservation Innovation grant with the Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation (DB and M. Vaughan, PDs), and a USDA-NIFA Specialty Crop Research Initiative CAPS grant #2012-51181-20105, and by a USDA-NIFA Project # ARK02710 (NJ).

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2023 Phan, Rajotte, Smagghe, Ren, Biddinger and Joshi.


  • agricultural pesticides
  • Integrated Pest and Pollinator Management (IPPM)
  • Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
  • pesticide regulations
  • pollinator conservation


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