Ajmaline-Induced Abnormalities in Brugada Syndrome: Evaluation With ECG Imaging

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Background The rate of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in Brugada syndrome (BrS) is ≈1%/y. Noninvasive electrocardiographic imaging is a noninvasive mapping system that has a role in assessing BrS depolarization and repolarization abnormalities. This study aimed to analyze electrocardiographic imaging parameters during ajmaline test (AJT). Methods and Results All consecutive epicardial maps of the right ventricle outflow tract (RVOT-EPI) in BrS with CardioInsight were retrospectively analyzed. (1) RVOT-EPI activation time (RVOT-AT); (2) RVOT-EPI recovery time, and (3) RVOT-EPI activation-recovery interval (RVOT-ARI) were calculated. ∆RVOT-AT, ∆RVOT-EPI recovery time, and ∆RVOT-ARI were defined as the difference in parameters before and after AJT. SCD-BrS patients were defined as individuals presenting a history of aborted SCD. Thirty-nine patients with BrS were retrospectively analyzed and 12 patients (30.8%) were SCD-BrS. After AJT, an increase in both RVOT-AT [105.9 milliseconds versus 65.8 milliseconds, P<0.001] and RVOT-EPI recovery time [403.4 milliseconds versus 365.7 milliseconds, P<0.001] was observed. No changes occurred in RVOT-ARI [297.5 milliseconds versus 299.9 milliseconds, P=0.7]. Before AJT no differences were observed between SCD-BrS and non SCD-BrS in RVOT-AT, RVOT-EPI recovery time, and RVOT-ARI (P=0.9, P=0.91, P=0.86, respectively). Following AJT, SCD-BrS patients showed higher RVOT-AT, higher ∆RVOT-AT, lower RVOT-ARI, and lower ∆RVOT-ARI (P<0.001, P<0.001, P=0.007, P=0.002, respectively). At the univariate logistic regression, predictors of SCD-BrS were the following: RVOT-AT after AJT (specificity: 0.74, sensitivity 1.00, area under the curve 0.92); ∆RVOT-AT (specificity: 0.74, sensitivity 0.92, area under the curve 0.86); RVOT-ARI after AJT (specificity 0.96, sensitivity 0.58, area under the curve 0.79), and ∆RVOT-ARI (specificity 0.85, sensitivity 0.67, area under the curve 0.76). Conclusions Noninvasive electrocardiographic imaging can be useful in evaluating the results of AJT in BrS.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere024001
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of the American Heart Association
Issue number2
Early online date13 Jan 2022
Publication statusPublished - 18 Jan 2022


  • Brugada syndrome
  • ECG imaging
  • sudden cardiac death


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