Authentication of extra virgin Argan oil by selected-ion flow-tube mass-spectrometry fingerprinting and chemometrics

Mourad Kharbach, Huiwen Yu, Rabie Kamal, Ilias Marmouzi, Katim Alaoui, Joeri Vercammen, Abdelaziz Bouklouze, Yvan Vander Heyden

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Recognized for its nutritional and therapeutic use, extra-virgin Argan Oil (EVAO) is frequently adulterated. Selected-Ion Flow-Tube Mass Spectrometry (SIFT-MS) spectra were applied to quantify adulterants (i.e., Argan oil of lower quality (LQAO), olive oil (OO), and sunflower oil (SO)) in EVAO. Four data sets, i.e., using H3O+, NO+, O2+ reagent ions, and the combined data were considered. Soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA), and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were assessed to distinguish adulterated- from pure EVAO. The effectiveness of SIFT-MS associated with PLS and support vector machine (SVM) regression to quantify trace adulterants in EVAO was evaluated. Variable Importance in Projection (VIP), and interval-PLS (iPLS) were also investigated to extract useful features. Different models were built to predict the EVAO authenticity and the degree of adulteration. High accuracy was achieved. SIFT-MS spectra handled with the appropriate chemometric tools were found suitable for the quality evaluation of EVAO.

Original languageEnglish
Article number132565
Number of pages12
JournalFood Chemistry
Early online date25 Feb 2022
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 25 Feb 2022

Bibliographical note

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  • Adulteration
  • Extra virgin Argan oil
  • Oil authentication
  • Oil fraud
  • Selected-Ion Flow-Tube Mass Spectrometry
  • Volatile organic compounds


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