Biological conditions affecting chronic inflammation in upper airways in children.

N Bernheim, A Doyen, P Eloy, Stijn Halewyck, Pw Hellings, N Mardyla, Jb Watelet

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)


Biological conditions affecting chronic inflammation in upper airways in children.

A child's immune system cannot depend on a memory-type immune response and it also induces cytokine responses less efficiently. Biological conditions like allergy or cystic fibrosis, immune deficiency or gastro-oesophageal reflux can induce and mantain background inflammation in children's upper airways, making newborns and children more susceptible to upper airway infections and inflammations. This paper will describe in brief how allergy, cystic fibrosis, immune deficiency, nasal and paranasal anatomical variants, and gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) can effect the immune and inflammatory respones in upper airways and how they could interfere with immunity development and maturation in children.

Methodology: literature review.

Chronic inflammation induced by infection, allergy, cystic fibrosis or immune deficiency is multifactorial in origin and is strongly influenced by physiological, immunological, anatomical, enviromental and, above all, genetic parameters. Finally, the direct role played by nasal and paranasal anatomical variants and GOR is also discussed.

These conditions should be screened systematically in all children presenting chronic clinical feature of upper airway inflammation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)41-71
Number of pages31
JournalActa Oto-Rhino-Laryngologica Belgica
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2012


  • inflammation
  • upper airways
  • child
  • infection
  • allergy
  • cystic fibrosis
  • gastro-oesophageal reflux

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