Cholestasis is a major pathological manifestation, often resulting in detrimental liver conditions, which occurs in a variety of indications collectively termed cholestatic liver diseases. The frequent asymptomatic character and complexity of cholestasis, together with the lack of a straightforward biomarker, hampers early detection and treatment of the condition. The 'omics' era, however, has resulted in a plethora of cholestatic indicators, yet a single clinically applicable biomarker for a given cholestatic disease remains missing. The criteria to fulfil as an ideal biomarker as well as the challenging molecular pathways in cholestatic liver diseases advocate for a scenario in which multiple biomarkers, originating from different domains, will be assessed concomitantly. This review gives an overview of classical clinical and novel molecular biomarkers in cholestasis, focusing on their benefits and drawbacks.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)437-454
Number of pages18
JournalBiomarkers in Medicine
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2021


  • biomarker
  • cholestasis
  • liver
  • omics


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