Driven by the increased consciousness in data ownership and privacy, zero-knowledge proofs
(ZKPs) have become a popular tool to convince a third party of the truthfulness of a statement without
disclosing any further information. As ZKPs are rather complex to design, frameworks that transform high-
level languages into ZKPs have been proposed.
We propose Circuitree, a Datalog reasoner in zero-knowledge. Datalog is a high-level declarative logic
language that is generally used for querying. Furthermore, as a logic language, it can also be used to solve
logic problems. An application using Circuitree can efficiently generate ZKPs, based on Datalog rules and
encrypted data, to prove that a certain conclusion follows from a Datalog ruleset and encrypted input data.
Compared to existing frameworks, which generally use their own limited imperative languages, Circuitree
uses an existing high-level declarative language.
We point out several applications for Circuitree, including EU Digital COVID Certificates and privacy-
preserving access control for peer-to-peer (p2p) networks. Circuitree’s performance is evaluated for access
control in a p2p network. First results show that our approach allows for fast proofs and proof verification
for this application.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21384-21396
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 22 Feb 2022


  • Access control
  • Bulletproofs
  • datalog
  • privacy
  • zero-knowledge proof
  • security
  • Identity Management
  • verifiable computation
  • Block chain
  • privacy-enhancing technologies


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