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International competition at Olympic Games has become increasingly competitive. More nations have developed medal winning capability and new countries have entered the Olympic market (Shibli, De Bosscher, van Bottenburg, & Westerbeek, 2013). In such a dynamic competition, the strategy and performance of a country cannot be understood independently of the competitive environment within which the country operates (Spanos & Lioukas, 2001). The objective of this paper is to evaluate the historical and the current level of competitive balance in one specific sport (athletics). Previously, Ramchandani and Wilson (2014) compared the historical trends in competitive balance at the Commonwealth Games, while De Bosscher, Dubois and Heyndels (2012) evaluated the internationalisation in athletics between 1986 and 2006. Based on the IAAF top 100 rankings, De Bosscher et al. (2012) indicated that high levels of static and dynamic internationalisation reflected the high competitive nature of elite athletics. Elite athletics became more international; dominant countries lost market share and new countries entered competition.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationsport in a digital age
PublisherEuropean Association for Sport Management
Number of pages2
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Event23rd EASM conference ‘sport in a digital age’ - Dublin, Ireland
Duration: 9 Sep 201513 Sep 2015


Conference23rd EASM conference ‘sport in a digital age’


  • competitive balance
  • elite sport policy
  • athletics


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