Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in Second Language Acquisition

Alex Housen, Folkert Kuiken, Jane Zuengler (Editor), Ken Hyland (Editor)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

388 Citations (Scopus)


In this article, we trace the historical origins of complexity, accuracy and fluency (CAF) as major dimensions of second language (L2) proficiency in research on applied linguistics, second language research and second language pedagogy. We also aim to provide notional definitions of these three constructs, and take a critical look at how they have been operationalized in the research literature.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)461-473
Number of pages13
JournalApplied Linguistics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2 Dec 2009

Bibliographical note

Jane Zuengler & Ken Hyland


  • Second Language Acquisition
  • language learning
  • Language accuracy
  • Language complexity
  • Language fluency
  • Language proficiency


Dive into the research topics of 'Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in Second Language Acquisition'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this