Cytotoxicity and Antiviral Activities of Haplophyllum tuberculatum Essential Oils, Pure Compounds, and Their Combinations against Coxsackievirus B3 and B4

Assia Hamdi, Aymen Halouani, Ines Aouf, Johan Viaene, Belsem Marzouk, Jamil Kraiem, Hela Jaïdane, Yvan Vander Heyden

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Haplophyllum tuberculatum is a plant commonly used in folk medicine to treat several diseases including vomiting, nausea, infections, rheumatism, and gastric pains. In the current study, H. tuberculatum essential oils, hydrosols, the pure compounds R-(+)-limonene, S-(-)-limonene, and 1-octanol, as well as their combinations R-(+)-limonene/1-octanol and S-(-)-limonene/1-octanol, were screened for their cytotoxicity on HEp-2 cells after 24, 48, and 72 h, and then tested for their activity against Coxsackievirus B3 and B4 (CV-B3 and CV-B4) at 3 different moments: addition of the plant compounds before, after, or together with virus inoculation. Results showed that the samples were more cytotoxic after 72 h than after 24 h or 48 h cell contact. However, the combinations R-(+)-limonene/1-octanol and S-(-)-limonene/1-octanol showed less effect on HEp-2 cells than pure R-(+)-limonene and S-(-)-limonene after 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h. 1-octanol exhibited the highest concentration causing 50% cytotoxicity (CC50) on HEp-2 cells after 24 h (CC50 = 93 µg/mL) and 48 h (CC50 = 83 µg/mL). The antiviral assays showed that the tested samples exhibited potent inhibition of CV-B. IC50 values ranged from 0.66 µg/mL to 28.4 µg/mL. In addition, CV-B3 was more sensitive than CV-B4. Both CV-B strains are more inhibited when cells were pretreated with the plant compounds. The hydrosols have no effect, neither on HEp-2 cells nor on the virus. 1-octanol, S-(-), and R-(+)-limonene/1-octanol had important selectivity indexes over time. Although essential oils had potent antiviral activity, they can be considered for application in the pretreatment of cells. However, 1-octanol and the combinations are within the safety limits, and thus, they can be used as an active natural antiviral agent for CV-B3 and CV-B4 inhibition.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)827-835
Number of pages9
JournalPlanta medica
Volume87
Issue number10-11
Early online date22 Jul 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 22 Jul 2021

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