D2.1 Landscape report on policy processes & opportunities for inclusive participation

Research output: Book/ReportCommissioned report


This document is the first deliverable of Work Package 2 “Stakeholder dialogue and inclusive citizen participation” reporting on the results from T2.1 “Assess urban greening policy processes: current gaps and identification of citizen engagement opportunities” and represent a steppingstone for the rest of the activities of the Urban ReLeaf project. Through mixed method research, combining the review of different policy texts on urban greening and participation with expert interviews, this deliverable identifies for each pilot city (i.e., Athens, Cascais, Dundee, Mannheim, Riga, and Utrecht): (1) the current general situation in each pilot in regard to urban greening/climate and participation; (2) the future vision of the city; (3) the envisioned role of citizens within greening activities and whether considerations for inclusive participation and justice were taken; (4) the current barriers and gaps to urban greening; (5) relevant stakeholders; (6) relevant initiatives; and tools and platforms.
By taking into consideration the foreseen sensing technology to be developed within Urban ReLeaf, this deliverable also identified opportunities for inclusive citizen-generated data within each pilot by linking them with current gaps and finding synergies with existing initiatives and tools and platforms.
This report demonstrates that all pilot cities are working to apply climate adaptation strategies and actions, translating their awareness of the necessity of policymaking on the subject. The policy review indicates that all cities are, to some extent, lacking data to efficiently conduct these activities, which represents an opportunity for Urban ReLeaf to emphasize the relevance of citizen-generated data. The extent to which the pilot cities are implementing citizen participation mechanisms varies greatly, but all display a willingness to increase their involvement with citizens. The use of “citizen-generated data” or associated terms (e.g., “citizen science”) within the reviewed documents is rare, suggesting a current lack of consideration for this source of information. The expert interviews, on the other hand, paint a more positive picture, as many identify initiatives involving citizen-generated data as opportunities for their own activities.
Overall, Urban ReLeaf’s foreseen activities are in line with the visions of the future of each city and address clear gaps in and needs for inclusive data. Urban ReLeaf’s activities are also in line with ongoing initiatives and platform and tools with which the project can find fruitful synergies. Going forward, the engagement strategies of Urban ReLeaf have to consider different key elements of social justice such as recognition justice in the recognition of different target groups and their differing lived realities in terms of, e.g., time capital, digital literacy and capacity, or physical capacity. From there stems the consideration for procedural justice in development inclusive participation mechanisms that take into consideration the predefined target groups and their associated characteristic(s), and that allows for appropriate mechanisms of participation (e.g., data collection) for all. Finally, consideration for distribution justice leads Urban ReLeaf to recognise the impact that the subject of research has on the participants (i.e., environmental injustice in the access of greening, and the associated benefits and burdens), but also the impact of the CS activities themselves (e.g., geographical representativeness of the data which will serve as basis for decision-making, representativeness of the perception of heat within the population, etc.) on different target groups.
Original languageEnglish
Commissioning bodyEuropean Commission
Number of pages63
Publication statusSubmitted - Jun 2023


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