Democratic Lagrangians for Nonlinear Electrodynamics

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We construct a Lagrangian for general nonlinear electrodynamics that features electric and magnetic potentials on equal footing. In the language of this Lagrangian, discrete and continuous electric-magnetic duality symmetries can be straightforwardly imposed, leading to a simple formulation for theories with the $SO(2)$ duality invariance. When specialized to the conformally invariant case, our construction provides a manifestly duality-symmetric formulation of the recently discovered ModMax theory. We briefly comment on a natural generalization of this approach to $p$-forms in $2p+2$ dimensions.
Original languageEnglish
Article number271601
Number of pages6
JournalPhys. Rev. Lett.
Issue number27
Publication statusPublished - 31 Dec 2021

Bibliographical note

6 pages, slightly expanded, references added, accepted for publication in Physical Review Letters


  • hep-th
  • hep-ph
  • math-ph
  • math.MP
  • physics.class-ph
  • physics.optics


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