17 Citations (Scopus)


Immunotherapeutic approaches, including adoptive cell therapy, revolutionized treatment in multiple myeloma (MM). As dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells and key initiators of tumor-specific immune responses, DC-based immunotherapy represents an attractive therapeutic approach in cancer. The past years, various DC-based approaches, using particularly ex-vivo-generated monocyte-derived DCs, have been tested in preclinical and clinical MM studies. However, long-term and durable responses in MM patients were limited, potentially attributed to the source of monocyte-derived DCs and the immunosuppressive bone marrow microenviron-ment. In this review, we briefly summarize the DC development in the bone marrow niche and the phenotypical and functional characteristics of the major DC subsets. We address the known DC deficiencies in MM and give an overview of the DC-based vaccination protocols that were tested in MM patients. Lastly, we also provide strategies to improve the efficacy of DC vaccines using new, improved DC-based approaches and combination therapies for MM patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article number904
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 14 Jan 2022


  • Dendritic cells
  • Immunotherapy
  • Multiple myeloma
  • Vaccination


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