Design and manufacturing of aspherical GaAs-SILs for a versatile optical semiconductor failure analysis system

Ikuo Arata, Hirotoshi Terada, Michael Vervaeke, Dries Rosseel, Hugo Thienpont

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this study, we have developed an aspherical solid immersion lens (SIL) made of gallium arsenide (GaAs) for semiconductor failure analysis. A SIL is an optical component to dramatically increase the numerical aperture and the spatial resolution of a microscopy system by attaching it to the backside of the device-under-test. To further enhance the spatial resolution of the optical microscopy system, a shorter wavelength light source has also been introduced. In the past, we have developed a spherical SIL made of silicon (Si), which is the same material as the device under test. However, Si is not transparent for wavelengths shorter than around 1100 nm. To enable the use of a SIL at shorter wavelengths, we chose GaAs as SIL material, which is transparent at shorter wavelengths than Si and has a refractive index very close to that of Si. However, a spherical GaAs SIL features a more pronounced spherical aberration due to the difference in refractive index between the device-under-test (Si) and that of the SIL (GaAs) deteriorating the optical resolution of the microscopy system. We have therefore designed an aspherical GaAs-SIL which makes it possible to correct spherical aberration. We applied diamond tooling as a technique for manufacturing the SIL shape with a required surface irregularity below 100 nm peak-to-valley, resulting in a diffraction limited performance of the optical system for semiconductor failure analysis with a performance at around 0.18 mu m cutoff.
Original languageEnglish
Article number115001
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalMicroelectronics Reliability
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors thank Xiangguang Mao, Yohei Amagata, Keiichiro Aoki, Masanori Kobayashi, Akira Shimase and Akihito Uchikado of Systems division, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. for technical support and advice, and Heidi Ottevaere of Brussels Photonics (B-PHOT) for the assistance.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Elsevier Ltd

Copyright 2023 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.




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