Determination of the competencies of a ski coach

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingMeeting abstract (Book)


INTRODUCTION: Knowing the requirements of the ski coaches' competencies on a certain European Qualifications Framework (EQF) level will enable ski federations to appoint the best possible coach in that specified level and creates the possibility to be graded in from one country to another (European Commission, 2008; Scatoli, 2009). In this study the competencies (= cluster of knowledge, skills and attitudes) for ski coaches in the EQF levels 4, 5 and 6 are being defined with the purpose to improve the existing ski coach education and to develop an evaluation tool for top level ski coaches.

METHOD: The qualitative Delphi method with four questioning rounds was used. By using this expert driven research protocol, one is able to synthesize different kinds of opinions and visions. The purpose of this method is to accomplish a consensus between all experts (Linstone and Turoff, 2002). A group of sixteen national ski experts participated in this study; amongst them 10 EQF level 6 ski coaches (including 2 ex-Olympic athletes), 4 EQF level 4 ski coaches, 1 professional (Olympic) skier and 1 organizer of the ski coaching program within the Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy at the University of Brussels. The experts were selected based on their experience and expertise in Flanders.

RESULTS: All knowledge, skills and attitudes a ski coach should have, were listed and per coaching level eight competencies were written down: 'to communicate', 'to follow up evolutions', 'to give feedback', 'to individualize', 'to act pedagogical and didactical', 'to plan', 'to work in a team' and 'outdoor specific actions'.

DISCUSSION: In response to the request of the Department of Sports of the Flemish Government to orient the ski coaching courses to the guidance of high level athletes, we reconsidered the contents of the courses in level 4 and 6 and filled in the existing gap in level 5. Core tasks, knowledge, skills and attitudes were determined and resulted in competency cards for each coaching level. From now on these competency cards will form the base of the new ski coaching education in Flanders. International comparison was only possible on course titles since the well-known ski countries have not incorporated the EQF yet.

CONCLUSION: For each EQF coaching level the same eight competencies were found. Due to the fact that coaches in the different levels work in different contexts, the contents (knowledge, skills and attitudes) of the competencies differ. Competency cards are made and may form the base of the ski coach education in Flanders. Furthermore they may be of use as an evaluation tool in recruitment of new top level coaches by the Flemish Ski and Snowboard Federation and will help to be graded in from one country to another.

European Commission, The European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning, (2008),, consulted March 2010.

Linstone, H., Turoff, M., (2002), Introduction, The Delphi method: techniques and applications, pp 3 - 12, (, consulted June 2010

Scatoli, C. (2009). The European Qualifications Framework for lifelong learning. Presentation on the international seminar: National Qualifications Frameworks in an international perspective, Brussels.

Acknowledgement: The Flemish government is acknowledged for their financial support.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAbstract book of the 5th International Congress on Science and Skiing
EditorsErich Müller, Stefan Lindinger, Thomas Stöggl, Jürgen Pfusterschmied
PublisherDept. of Sport Science and Kinesiology, University of Salzburg, Austria
ISBN (Print)978-3-200-02097-9
Publication statusPublished - 14 Dec 2010
EventFinds and Results from the Swedish Cyprus Expedition: A Gender Perspective at the Medelhavsmuseet - Stockholm, Sweden
Duration: 21 Sep 200925 Sep 2009


ConferenceFinds and Results from the Swedish Cyprus Expedition: A Gender Perspective at the Medelhavsmuseet

Bibliographical note

Erich Müller , Stefan Lindinger , Thomas Stöggl , Jürgen Pfusterschmied


  • ski-coaches
  • competencies
  • delphi method
  • EQF


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