Development and partial validation of Be-CLIPSS: a classification system for hospital clinical pharmacy activities

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BACKGROUND: Documentation of drug related problems (DRPs) and pharmaceutical interventions (PIs) is essential for an objective evaluation of the pharmacist's contribution to pharmacotherapy. However, in Belgium, a nationally used classification system is not available, prohibiting structured and uniform documentation of DRPs and PIs.

AIM: To develop and validate a national classification system for in-hospital clinical pharmacy activities, based on literature and field experience, specifically intended for routine registration.

METHOD: Based on a literature review, a survey among Belgian hospital pharmacists and a stakeholder focus group, a first version of Be-CLIPSS (Belgian CLInical Pharmacy claSsification System) was developed. Inter-rater reliability of the DRPs and PIs was assessed. Additionally, its usability was reviewed. The system was further refined, followed by a second validation.

RESULTS: Both the survey and focus group discussion revealed little use of validated DRP and PI classification systems in Belgium, although these were considered highly desirable if practical and minimally time-consuming. The final classification system encompassed seven clinical pharmacy activities, grouped into four activity classes. The inter-rater reliability for the second activity class was substantial for the DRPs (κ = 0.737) and almost perfect for the PIs (κ = 0.872). The interpretability (86.4%), user-friendliness (61.4%), user satisfaction (84.1%), interest for use in daily practice (68.2%) and difficulty in correctly classifying the DRP and PI (31.8%) were assessed.

CONCLUSION: Be-CLIPSS, a newly developed and partially validated classification system for DRPs and PIs, was found to be user-friendly, with a good interpretability and user satisfaction, resulting in a high interest for use in daily practice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)80-89
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.


  • Classification system
  • Clinical Pharmacy
  • Drug related problem
  • Pharmaceutical intervention


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