Direct X-ray and electron-beam lithography of halogenated zeolitic imidazolate frameworks

Min Tu, Benzheng Xia, Dmitry E. Kravchenko, Max Lutz Tietze, Alexander John Cruz, Ivo Stassen, Tom Hauffman, Joan Teyssandier, Steven De Feyter, Zheng Wang, Roland A. Fischer, Benedetta Marmiroli, Heinz Amenitsch, Ana Torvisco, Miriam de J. Velásquez-Hernández, Paolo Falcaro, Rob Ameloot

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

78 Citations (Scopus)
310 Downloads (Pure)


Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) offer disruptive potential in micro- and optoelectronics because of the unique properties of these microporous materials. Nanoscale patterning is a fundamental step in the implementation of MOFs in miniaturized solid-state devices. Conventional MOF patterning methods suffer from low resolution and poorly defined pattern edges. Here, we demonstrate the resist-free, direct X-ray and electron-beam lithography of MOFs. This process avoids etching damage and contamination and leaves the porosity and crystallinity of the patterned MOFs intact. The resulting high-quality patterns have excellent sub-50-nm resolution, and approach the mesopore regime. The compatibility of X-ray and electron-beam lithography with existing micro- and nanofabrication processes will facilitate the integration of MOFs in miniaturized devices.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)93-99
Number of pages7
JournalNature Materials
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021


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