BACKGROUND:Aspiration resulting from oropharyngeal dysphagia has been recognized as a serious complication after lung resection. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether early detection of postoperative dysphagia would reduce pneumonia among these patients. The median length of hospital stay was assessed. METHODS:In this single-center, randomized controlled trial, the experimental group underwent clinical assessment of dysphagia before the initiation of oral intake after surgery. Therapeutic interventions were implemented immediately for patients diagnosed with dysphagia. The risk of pneumonia and the median length of hospital stay were compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS:Between February 2014 and May 2016, 438 patients were randomized. Complete data from all randomized patients were analyzed. Eight cases out of 219 (3.7%) with postoperative dysphagia were detected in the experimental group. Pneumonia occurred in 14 cases out of 219 (6.4 %) in the experimental group and in 27 cases out of 219 (12.3 %) in the control group. The resulting risk reduction for pneumonia was 5.9% in the experimental group (95% confidence interval, 0.44-11.56; P = .033). The median length of hospital stay was 6 (5-8 [25th-75th percentile]) days in the experimental group and 7 (5-10 [25th-75th percentile]) days in the control group (P = .083). CONCLUSIONS:Early detection of postoperative dysphagia can significantly decrease the risk of postoperative pneumonia in patients undergoing lung resection.