BACKGROUND: According to guidelines, implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) candidates must have a "reasonable expectation of survival with a good functional status >1 year". Identifying risk for early mortality in ICD candidates could be challenging. We aimed to identify factors associated with a ≤1-year survival among patients implanted with ICDs.
METHODS: The DAI-PP program was a multicenter, observational French study that included all patients who received a primary prevention ICD in the 2002-2012 period. Characteristics of patients who survived ≤1 year following the implantation were compared with those who survived >1 year, and predictors of early death determined.
RESULTS: Out of the 5539 enrolled patients, survival status at 1 year was known for a total of 5,457, and overall 230 (4.2%) survived ≤1 year. Causes of death were similar in the two groups. Patients with ≤1-year survival had lower rates of appropriate (14 vs. 23%; P = 0.004) and inappropriate ICD therapies (2 vs. 7%; P = 0.009) than patients who lived >1 year after ICD implantation. In multivariate analysis, older age, higher NYHA class (≥III), and atrial fibrillation were significantly associated with ≤1-year survival. Presence of all 3 risk factors was associated with a cumulative 22.63% risk of death within 1 year after implantation.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest study determining the factors predicting early mortality after ICD implantation. Patients dying within the first year had low ICD therapy rates. A combination of clinical factors could potentially identify patients at risk for early mortality to help improve selection of ICD candidates.
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- Age Factors
- Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology
- Cause of Death
- Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control
- Defibrillators, Implantable/adverse effects
- Electric Countershock/instrumentation
- Heart Failure/epidemiology
- Middle Aged
- Prosthesis Implantation/methods
- Risk Assessment
- Risk Factors
- Survival Analysis
- Tachycardia, Ventricular/mortality