ABSTRACT: In Somalia, which is located in the horn of Africa, a fragile and insecure state structure allowed the strengthening of terrorist groups provoking armed conflicts. Stray bullet injuries can be defined as an accidental bullet wound caused by an anonymous attacker and are usually associated with celebratory gunfire or urban violence. The anatomy of the pterygopalatine fossa (PPF) is complex and penetrating foreign body injuries pose even a greater challenge for the surgeon to operate in this area. Endoscopic approaches facilitate the removal of foreign bodies from the paranasal sinuses, orbital cavity, and aerodigestive system, minimizing potential risks. This study presents a series of removal of stray bullets found in the PPF, as a result of urban violence in Somalia in a period of 6 months. Patient demographics, foreign body origin, treatment modalities, and surgery details were evaluated and assessed. All patients were male and aged 16, 2, and 24 years, respectively. The surgeries were quite straightforward with surgery times recorded as 25, 44, and 22 minutes, respectively. The endoscopic endonasal approach proved to provide safe and sufficient access for removal. Surprisingly, even the foreign body in the PPF of a 2-year-old patient could be removed with an endoscopic endonasal approach and did not require an external approach. The management of foreign body removal in the PPF is challenging due to the potential risks of iatrogenic vascular and nervous tissue injury. The endoscopic endonasal approach for removal proved efficient in 3 cases regardless of age and anatomical dimensions.
Bibliographical noteCopyright © 2021 by Mutaz B. Habal, MD.
- Endoscopic Endonasal Removal
- Fossa Pterygopalatine
- Stray Bullets
- pterygopalatine fossa