Energy management and ECO-strategies modeling of electric bus fleets in Barcelona city

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference paper

1 Citation (Scopus)
39 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

The paper studies the development of ECO-strategies, including ECO-driving, ECO-charging, and ECO-comfort, for fleets of electric buses traveling in two routes in Barcelona, route H16 and route L33, in terms of their energy utilization, total cost of ownership and the impact on the grid. The efficacy of each ECO-strategy is evaluated with respect to the driving and climatic conditions. To evaluate the effects of climate, fleet simulations for Barcelona are run for mid-summer and mid-winter, in normal mode as well as for each of the ECO modes independently and all combined. To evaluate the effects of driving condition, two different routes with different average velocities and elevation profiles are considered. The fleet consists of four types of electric buses that are evaluated, including two 12m and two 18m buses, with different battery capacities and chemistries. Simulation results showed that the battery capacities for the 12m buses were more than sufficient to allow the buses to undertake two or three return trips before requiring charging. However, for the 18m buses the capacity was just sufficient to make one return trip in either of the routes being considered, not allowing much room for battery capacity degradation; thus, it is recommended to apply ECO-features to reduce the energy utilization rate, increase the number of charging points along the route, or increase the battery capacity. Results show that ECO-driving is more effective when the average velocity of the route is higher; thus, route H16 with an average route velocity of 2.64m/s shows no discernable energy savings, while route L33 with an average route velocity of 3.23m/s has 5% ~ 7% energy savings. Similarly, results show that ECO-comfort is optimized for cooling, with substantial energy savings of 23% during summer and 18% during winter. Finally, ECO-charging shows more energy savings for high charging c-rate; LTO batteries, with a c-rate of -5C showing 5% ~ 6% more savings than NMC battery, with a c-rate of -2.5C.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2021 23rd European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE'21 ECCE Europe)
Place of PublicationIEEE Xplore
PublisherIEEE
Number of pages10
ISBN (Electronic)978-9-0758-1537-5
ISBN (Print)978-1-6654-3384-6
Publication statusPublished - 25 Oct 2021
Event2021 23rd European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications - Ghent, Ghent, Belgium
Duration: 6 Sep 201910 Sep 2021
Conference number: 23
http://www.epe2021.com/

Publication series

Name2021 23rd European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, EPE 2021 ECCE Europe

Conference

Conference2021 23rd European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications
Abbreviated titleEPE'21 ECCE Europe
CountryBelgium
CityGhent
Period6/09/1910/09/21
Internet address

Keywords

  • Electric Bus Fleets
  • Energy Management Strategy
  • Charging Management Strategy
  • Thermal Management Strategy
  • ECO-features

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Energy management and ECO-strategies modeling of electric bus fleets in Barcelona city'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this