Recent advancements in the field of immune-oncology have led to a significant increase in life expectancy of patients with diverse forms of cancer, such as hematologic malignancies, melanoma and lung cancer. Unfortunately, these encouraging results are not observed in the majority of patients, who remain unresponsive and/or encounter adverse events. Currently, researchers are collecting more insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie these variable responses. As an example, the human lymphocyte activation gene-3 (huLAG-3), an inhibitory immune checkpoint receptor, is increasingly studied as a therapeutic target in immune-oncology. Noninvasive molecular imaging of the immune checkpoint programmed death protein-1 (PD-1) or its ligand PD-L1 has shown its value as a strategy to guide and monitor PD-1/PD-L1-targeted immune checkpoint therapy. Yet, radiotracers that allow dynamic, whole body imaging of huLAG-3 expression are not yet described. We here developed single-domain antibodies (sdAbs) that bind huLAG-3 and showed that these sdAbs can image huLAG-3 in tumors, therefore representing promising tools for further development into clinically applicable radiotracers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalEJNMMI Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2 Nov 2021

Bibliographical note

© 2021. The Author(s).


  • Cancer
  • Immunotherapy
  • immune checkpoint
  • LAG-3


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