Extraversion and approach goal orientation: An integrative approach to personality.

Jennifer Pickett, Joeri Hofmans, Filip De Fruyt

Research output: Unpublished contribution to conferenceUnpublished paper


Research shows that extraversion is unrelated to performance approach goal orientation, both at the trait- and the state-level. However, since previous studies have either focused on the trait- or the state-level, such a conclusion may be premature. Building upon the idea that acting against one’s trait consumes self-control resources, we reason that within-person deviations from one’s level of trait extraversion might negatively relate to performance approach goal orientation. Using experience sampling data from 48 employees across 10 days (N=384), we found that deviations from one’s trait extraversion level are associated with lower levels of performance approach goal orientation. These findings suggest that an integrative approach to personality allows to better understand the relationship between extraversion and performance approach goal orientation.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages14
Publication statusPublished - 24 Nov 2018


  • extraversion
  • performance approach goal orientation
  • counterdispositional behavior
  • integrative approach to personality
  • curvilinear relationships
  • Behavioral Condordance Model


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