Extraversion and performance approach goal orientation: An integrative approach to personality

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7 Citations (Scopus)


Research shows that extraversion is unrelated to performance approach goal orientation, both at the trait- and the state-level. However, since previous studies have either focused on the trait- or the state-level, such a conclusion may be premature. Building upon the idea that acting against one's trait consumes self-control resources, we reason that within-person deviations from one's level of trait extraversion might negatively relate to performance approach goal orientation. Using experience sampling data from 47 employees across 10 days (N = 307), we found that deviations from one's trait extraversion levels are associated with lower levels of performance approach goal orientation. These findings suggest that an integrative approach to personality allows to better understanding of the relationship between extraversion and performance approach goal orientation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103846
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Research in Personality
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2019


  • Behavioral concordance model
  • Counterdispositional behavior
  • Curvilinear relationships
  • Extraversion
  • Integrative approach to personality
  • Performance approach goal orientation


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