Fast Charging Impact on the Lithium‐Ion Batteries’ Lifetime and Cost‐Effective Battery Sizing in Heavy‐Duty Electric Vehicles Applications

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Abstract

Fast charging is an essential stakeholder concern for achieving a deeper penetration of
Electric Vehicles (EVs), as optimizing the charging times of conventional vehicles is as yet a bottle‐
neck to be solved. An important drawback of EV’s fast charging lies in the degradation suffered by
the Li‐ion Batteries (LIBs) at high charging currents. A deep understanding of the how these fast‐
charging activities affect the LIBs’ degradation is necessary in order to design appropriate fast
charging stations and EV powertrains for different scenarios and contexts. In this regard, the present
paper analyzes the effect of fast charging on Libs’ degradation under operation profiles from real
driving cycles. Specifically, Battery Electric Buses (BEBs) driving profiles from three demos in Eu‐
ropean Cities (Gothenburg, Osnabrück and Barcelona) have been used in this analysis. In order to
deduce the best practices for the design of the charging stations, different sizes for the chargers have
been simulated, focusing on the analysis of the LIB degradation under each situation. Besides, for
the design of the EV powertrain, different LIB sizes and LIB chemistries (Lithium Nickel Manganese
Cobalt‐NMC, Lithium Iron Phosphate‐LFP, and Lithium Titanate Oxide‐LTO) have also been pro‐
posed and compared in terms of LIB degradation. The results demonstrated that LTO batteries ex‐
hibited the lowest degradation, with capacity fade values under 1.5%/year in the nominal scenario
(nominal charger and LIB sizes). As long as a full charging is ensured, reducing the fast charger size
has been found to be a cost‐effective measure, as the LTO degradation can be reduced at least to
1.21%/year. In addition, increasing the battery (BT) size has also been found to be a cost‐effective
approach for LTO batteries. In this case, it was found that for a 66% increase in capacity, the degra‐
dation can be reduced at least to 0.74%/year (more than 50% reduction). The obtained conclusions
are seen as useful for the design of charging stations and EV’s BT systems that undergo fast charg‐
ing.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1278
Pages (from-to)1
Number of pages24
JournalEnergies
Volume15
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 10 Feb 2022

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