Fibromuscular dysplasia: Its various phenotypes in everyday practice in 2021

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Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a non-atherosclerotic vascular disease that may involve medium-sized muscular arteries throughout the body. The pathogenesis of FMD remains poorly understood, but a combination of genetic and environmental factors may be involved. The majority of FMD patients are women, but men may have a more progressive disease, especially when smoking. Besides the classical phenotype of string of beads or focal stenosis, arterial aneurysms, dissections, and tortuosity are frequent manifestations of the disease. However, the differential diagnosis of FMD is extensive and includes imaging artefacts as well as other arterial diseases. Diagnosis is based on CT-, MR-, or conventional catheter-based angiography during work-up of clinical manifestations, but clinically silent lesions may be found incidentally. Arterial hypertension and neurological symptoms are the most frequent clinical presentations, as renal and cerebrovascular arteries are the most commonly involved. However, involvement of most arteries throughout the body has been reported, resulting in a variety of clinical symptoms. The management of FMD depends on the vascular phenotype as well on the clinical picture. Ongoing FMD-related research will elaborate in depth the current progress in improved understandings of the disease's clinical manifestations, epidemiology, natural history and pathogenesis. This review is focused on the clinical management of adult FMD in daily practice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)733-744
Number of pages12
JournalKardiologia Polska
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Author(s), 2021.

Copyright 2022 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Aneurysm
  • Angiography
  • Female
  • Fibromuscular Dysplasia/diagnostic imaging
  • Humans
  • Hypertension
  • Male
  • Phenotype


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