Fluid and blood management in traumatic and non-traumatic surgical emergencies

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Most patients undergoing emergency surgery require fluid therapy to correct for fluid losses, restore cardiac output and therefore oxygen delivery. Fluids are drugs and should only be administered when their benefit outweigh the risk of potential side effects. Two principles should be kept in mind when administering IV fluids: the 4 D’s of fluid therapy (Drug, Dose, Duration and De-escalation) and the ROSE principle (Resuscitation, Optimization, Stabilization, Evacuation). Crystalloids, colloids and blood products have different characteristics that should be taken into account when selecting the “right fluid for the job” to restore intravascular volume depletion.
The decision on whether or not to start, continue, or stop fluid administration should be based on a thorough clinical exam and a multitude of hemodynamic parameters. Advanced hemodynamic monitoring devices can support decision-making. Patients receiving fluids should be frequently reassessed to determine whether fluid administration can be halted and detect adverse events related to fluid under- or overloading.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationTextbook of Emergency General Surgery: Traumatic and Non-traumatic Surgical Emergencies
Subtitle of host publicationTraumatic and Non-traumatic Surgical Emergencies
Number of pages14
ISBN (Electronic)9783031225994
ISBN (Print)9783031225987
Publication statusPublished - 13 May 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2023.


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