This scoping review investigated foreign national and ethnic minority prisoners’ participation in formally organized occupations (prison activities) such as active citizenship, healthcare and treatment, leisure time, and reintegration occupations. It aimed to: (1) map available studies on both groups of prisoners’ participation in these occupations within prisons, and (2) evaluate existing research topics on participation and types of occupations available in prisons. Following a search in electronic databases, manual searches, and expert consultation, 36 studies met the inclusion criteria. Data from these studies were extracted and synthesized qualitatively. The results demonstrate that most literature has focused on ethnic minorities’ participation, rather than that of foreign nationals. There was also unequal research attention regarding types of prison occupations studied, with healthcare and treatment programs predominating. In addition, this review provides some evidence for the importance of acknowledging and considering the ‘cultural’ diversity among prisoners in providing occupations to them. Research gaps and future research avenues on this topic are identified. Finally, the limitations and the implications of this review are considered.
- Occupational science; Foreign national prisoners; Ethnic minority prisoners; Participation; Prison activities; Scoping review