Foundations of Forward and Inverse Groundwater Flow Models

Wouter Zijl, Florimond De Smedt, Mustafa El-Rawy, Okke Batelaan

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


This chapter deals with the basic equation governing groundwater flow. In Sect. 2.1, the equations are presented in their full four-dimensional form (three spatial dimensions + time) with emphasis on the parameters. Section 2.2 introduces Calderón’s approach to determination of the spatially heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity field. To avoid negative hydraulic conductivities in the double constraint methodology (DCM), this approach is based on the square root of the hydraulic conductivity (sqrt-conductivity α). Section 2.3 introduces Stefanescu’s α-center method for parameter estimation, while Sect. 2.4 analyzes Calderón’s approach in more depth using inspiration from Stefanesco’s method. Although this chapter sets the scene for the real subject matter of this book—the double constraint methodology (DCM)—its reading may be skipped by readers who want to go directly to the DCM treated in Chap. 3.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology
PublisherSpringer Verlag
Number of pages19
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2018

Publication series

NameSpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology
ISSN (Print)2191-530X
ISSN (Electronic)2191-5318


Dive into the research topics of 'Foundations of Forward and Inverse Groundwater Flow Models'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this