Gantry triggered x-ray verification during single-isocenter stereotactic radiosurgery: Increased certainty for a no-margin strategy

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BACKGROUND: Single-isocenter linac-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has emerged as a dedicated treatment option for multiple brain metastases. Consequently, image-guidance for patient positioning and motion management has become very important. The purpose of this study was to analyze intra-fraction errors measured with stereoscopic x-rays and their impact on the dose distribution.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Treatments were planned with non- coplanar dynamic conformal arcs for 33 patients corresponding to 127 brain lesions and 356 arcs. Intra-arc positioning errors were measuredusing stereoscopic x-rays (ExacTrac Dynamic, Brainlab), triggered during arc delivery. Couch corrections above 0.7 mm and 0.5° were always applied. Intra-arc positioning data was analyzed. The dose impact was evaluated by applying the measured errors to the dose given in each arc.

RESULTS: Median residual errors were 0.10 mm, 0.13 mm and 0.08 mm for the lateral, longitudinal and vertical directions and 0.10°, 0.08° and 0.13° for the pitch, roll and yaw angles respectively. 90% of the treatment arcs showed shifts of less than 0.4 mm and 0.4°in all directions. Dosimetric impact of motion showed the largest losses in coverage on small targets. All targets achieved at least 95% of the prescription dose to 95% of their volume, even when planned without margins.

CONCLUSIONS: Intra-fractional errors measured during beam delivery were found to be notably low with a dose impact that showed acceptable target coverage when applying these intra-arc errors to the dose distributions of the individual treatment arcs. Using an adequate immobilization and intra-fraction imaging prior to and during irradiation, no margins need to be added to compensate for intra-fraction motion.

Original languageEnglish
Article number109808
Number of pages7
JournalRadiotherapy and Oncology
Early online date17 Jul 2023
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2023


  • stereotactic radiosurgery
  • multiple brain metastases
  • dynamic conformal arcs
  • infra-fractional monitoring
  • motion monitoring


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