Genetic differentiation in pesticide resistance between urban and rural populations of a nontarget freshwater keystone interactor, Daphnia magna

Kristien I Brans, Rafaela A Almeida, Maxime Fajgenblat

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8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

There is growing evidence that urbanization drives adaptive evolution in response to thermal gradients. One such example is documented in the water flea Daphnia magna. However, organisms residing in urban lentic ecosystems are increasingly exposed to chemical pollutants such as pesticides through run-off and aerial transportation. The extent to which urbanization drives the evolution of pesticide resistance in aquatic organisms and whether this is impacted by warming and thermal adaptation remains limitedly studied. We performed a common garden rearing experiment using multiple clonal lineages originating from five replicated urban and rural D. magna populations, in which we implemented an acute toxicity test exposing neonates (<24 h) to either a solvent control or the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos. Pesticide exposures were performed at two temperatures (20°C vs. 24°C) to test for temperature-associated differences in urbanization-driven evolved pesticide resistance. We identified a strong overall effect of pesticide exposure on Daphnia survival probability (−72.8 percentage points). However, urban Daphnia genotypes showed higher survival probabilities compared to rural ones in the presence of chlorpyrifos (+29.7 percentage points). Our experiment did not reveal strong temperature x pesticide or temperature x pesticide x urbanization background effects on survival probability. The here observed evolution of resistance to an organophosphate pesticide is a first indication Daphnia likely also adapts to pesticide pollution in urban areas. Increased pesticide resistance could facilitate their population persistence in urban ponds, and feed back to ecosystem functions, such as top-down control of algae. In addition, adaptive evolution of nontarget organisms to pest control strategies and occupational pesticide use may modulate how pesticide applications affect genetic and species diversity in urban areas.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2541-2552
Number of pages12
JournalEvolutionary Applications
Volume14
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was funded by KU Leuven Internal Funding PDM/18/112, and FWO Research Foundation Flanders, postdoctoral grant application nr. 1222120N (KIB) and doctoral grant applications 11E3220N (MF) and 1S04618N (RAA).

Funding Information:
This work was funded by KU Leuven Internal Funding PDM/18/112, and FWO Research Foundation Flanders, postdoctoral grant application nr. 1222120N (KIB) and doctoral grant applications 11E3220N (MF) and 1S04618N (RAA). We thank student Jeanne Bruyninckx for her practical help during the experiment.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Authors. Evolutionary Applications published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Copyright:
Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

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