STUDY QUESTION: Can genome-wide haplotyping increase success following preimplantation genetic testing for a monogenic disorder (PGT-M) by including zygotes with absence of pronuclei (0PN) or the presence of only one pronucleus (1PN)?
SUMMARY ANSWER: Genome-wide haplotyping 0PNs and 1PNs increases the number of PGT-M cycles reaching embryo transfer (ET) by 81% and the live-birth rate by 75%.
WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Although a significant subset of 0PN and 1PN zygotes can develop into balanced, diploid and developmentally competent embryos, they are usually discarded because parental diploidy detection is not part of the routine work-up of PGT-M.
STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This prospective cohort study evaluated the pronuclear number in 2229 zygotes from 2337 injected metaphase II (MII) oocytes in 268 cycles. PGT-M for 0PN and 1PN embryos developing into Day 5/6 blastocysts with adequate quality for vitrification was performed in 42 of the 268 cycles (15.7%). In these 42 cycles, we genome-wide haplotyped 216 good quality embryos corresponding to 49 0PNs, 15 1PNs and 152 2PNs. The reported outcomes include parental contribution to embryonic ploidy, embryonic aneuploidy, genetic diagnosis for the monogenic disorder, cycles reaching ETs, pregnancy and live birth rates (LBR) for unaffected offspring.
PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Blastomere DNA was whole-genome amplified and hybridized on the Illumina Human CytoSNP12V2.1.1 BeadChip arrays. Subsequently, genome-wide haplotyping and copy-number profiling was applied to investigate the embryonic genome architecture. Bi-parental, unaffected embryos were transferred regardless of their initial zygotic PN score.
MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: A staggering 75.51% of 0PN and 42.86% of 1PN blastocysts are diploid bi-parental allowing accurate genetic diagnosis for the monogenic disorder. In total, 31% (13/42) of the PGT-M cycles reached ET or could repeat ET with an unaffected 0PN or 1PN embryo. The LBR per initiated cycle increased from 9.52 to 16.67%.
LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The clinical efficacy of the routine inclusion of 0PN and 1PN zygotes in PGT-M cycles should be confirmed in larger cohorts from multicenter studies.
WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Genome-wide haplotyping allows the inclusion of 0PN and 1PN embryos and subsequently increases the cycles reaching ET following PGT-M and potentially PGT for aneuploidy (PGT-A) and chromosomal structural rearrangements (PGT-SR). Establishing measures of clinical efficacy could lead to an update of the ESHRE guidelines which advise against the use of these zygotes.
STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): SymBioSys (PFV/10/016 and C1/018 to J.R.V. and T.V.), the Horizon 2020 WIDENLIFE: 692065 to J.R.V., T.V., E.D., A.D. and M.Z.E. M.Z.E., T.V. and J.R.V. co-invented haplarithmisis ('Haplotyping and copy-number typing using polymorphic variant allelic frequencies'), which has been licensed to Agilent Technologies. H.M. is fully supported by the (FWO) (ZKD1543-ASP/16). The authors have no competing interests to declare.
- Embryo Culture Techniques
- Embryo Transfer/methods
- Embryonic Development/physiology
- Genetic Testing
- Preimplantation Diagnosis/methods
- Prospective Studies