Approximately half of all patients with heart failure (HF) have a preserved ejection fraction, and the prevalence is growing rapidly given the aging population in many countries and the rising prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Functional capacity and quality of life are severely impaired in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and morbidity and mortality are high. In striking contrast to HF with reduced ejection fraction, there are few effective treatments currently identified for HFpEF, and these are limited to decongestion by diuretics, promotion of a healthy active lifestyle, and management of comorbidities. Improved phenotyping of subgroups within the overall HFpEF population might enhance individualization of treatment. This review focuses on the current understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying HFpEF and treatment strategies for this complex syndrome.Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 73 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
- Heart Failure
- Preserved Ejection Fraction