The presence of myeloma cells in the blood circulation. implicates that these cells must have the potential to extravasate and home to the bone marrow environment. Using the 5T2 MM mouse model, we could demonstrate that the restricted localization of myeloma cells in the bone marrow is the result of selective migration of myeloma cells in the bone marrow combined with a selective growth of the tumour cells in the bone marrow microenvironment. Moreover, we showed that 5T2 MM cells bind in vitro selectively to bone marrow-derived endothelial cells (EC) and not to lung-derived EC. In order to identify which chemotactic molecules mediate the transendothelial migration of myeloma cells, we examined the motility-inducing effect of different extracellular matrix proteins on myeloma cell lines. We found that laminin-1 a major component of the basement membrane, triggers the motility of both human myeloma cells and 5T2 MM cells, through the 67 kD laminin receptor. Because of the broad distribution of laminin in extracellular matrices throughout the body, it is clear that this molecule on itself can not be the only factor that determines the specificity of myeloma cell homing. In the 5T2 MM model we identified IGF-1 as a more specific bone marrow derived chemoattractant for myeloma cells. In addition we demonstrated that the marrow microenvironment can upregulate the expression of the IGF-1 receptor on 5T mouse myeloma cells. In the end phase of the disease, increasing numbers of myeloma cells are detectable in the peripheral blood and extramedullary tumour growth can occur. We found that the stroma-independent variant of the human MM5 myeloma cell line showed an increased in vitro motility as compared to the stroma-dependent variant. By representational difference analysis we demonstrated that the stroma-dependent MM5 cells show a downregulation of the motility-related protein (MRP-I CD9) which might reflect the involvement of this molecule in the regulation of myeloma cell extravasation.
|Publication status||Published - 2000|