The relationship between war and identity is complex. First, as expressed by French novelist Amin Maalouf and examined extensively in the area of conflict studies, identity is a significant driver of many modern wars. Mary Kaldor argues in her study on the characteristics of contemporary conflicts that in the old wars, geopolitical interests or ideologies, such as democracy or socialism have been the primary reasons for taking up arms. War can cause identities to be constructed and reconstructed. Creating a new identity usually means eliminating a previous one, as seen in the example of Yugoslavia and Bosnia. Changing an identity can entail adjusting its content or salience.