OBJECTIVE: The current study examined the utility of a new self-report questionnaire, the Illness Identity Questionnaire (IIQ), which assesses the concept of illness identity, or the degree to which type 1 diabetes is integrated into one's identity. Four illness identity dimensions (engulfment, rejection, acceptance, and enrichment) were validated in adolescents and emerging adults with type 1 diabetes. Associations with psychological and diabetes-specific functioning were assessed.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A sample of 575 adolescents and emerging adults (14-25 years of age) with type 1 diabetes completed questionnaires on illness identity, psychological functioning, diabetes-related problems, and treatment adherence. Physicians were contacted to collect HbA1c values from patients' medical records. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to validate the IIQ. Path analysis with structural equation modeling was used to examine associations between illness identity and psychological and diabetes-specific functioning.
RESULTS: CFA indicated that the IIQ has a clear factor structure, meaningfully differentiating four illness identity dimensions. Rejection was related to worse treatment adherence and higher HbA1c values. Engulfment was related to less adaptive psychological functioning and more diabetes-related problems. Acceptance was related to more adaptive psychological functioning, fewer diabetes-related problems, and better treatment adherence. Enrichment was related to more adaptive psychological functioning.
CONCLUSIONS: The present findings underscore the importance of the concept of illness identity. A valid and reliable measure, the IIQ, is introduced to measure four illness identity dimensions in individuals with type 1 diabetes. These four illness identity dimensions were uniquely related to psychological and diabetes-specific functioning.