Imaging dynamic redox processes with genetically encoded probes

Daria Ezeriņa, Bruce Morgan, Tobias P Dick

Research output: Contribution to journalScientific reviewpeer-review


Redox signalling plays an important role in many aspects of physiology, including that of the cardiovascular system. Perturbed redox regulation has been associated with numerous pathological conditions; nevertheless, the causal relationships between redox changes and pathology often remain unclear. Redox signalling involves the production of specific redox species at specific times in specific locations. However, until recently, the study of these processes has been impeded by a lack of appropriate tools and methodologies that afford the necessary redox species specificity and spatiotemporal resolution. Recently developed genetically encoded fluorescent redox probes now allow dynamic real-time measurements, of defined redox species, with subcellular compartment resolution, in intact living cells. Here we discuss the available genetically encoded redox probes in terms of their sensitivity and specificity and highlight where uncertainties or controversies currently exist. Furthermore, we outline major goals for future probe development and describe how progress in imaging methodologies will improve our ability to employ genetically encoded redox probes in a wide range of situations. This article is part of a special issue entitled "Redox Signalling in the Cardiovascular System."

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)43-9
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2014

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


  • Animals
  • Green Fluorescent Proteins/metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen Peroxide/metabolism
  • Luminescent Proteins/metabolism
  • Oxidation-Reduction


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