Impact of Relaxation Time on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Characterization of the Most Common Lithium Battery Technologies—Experimental Study and Chemistry-Neutral Modeling

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Abstract

In electrified vehicle applications, understanding the battery characteristics is of great importance as it is the state-of-art principal energy source. The key battery parameters can be identified by one of the robust and nondestructive characterization techniques, such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). However, relaxing the battery cell before performing the EIS method is crucial for the characterization results to be standardized. In this study, the three most common and commercially available lithium-ion technologies (NMC/graphite, LFP/graphite, NCA/LTO) are investigated at 15–45 °C temperature, in the range of 20–80% state of charge (SoC) and in fresh and aged state of health (SoH) conditions. The analysis shows that the duration of the relaxation time before impedance measurement has an impact on the battery’s nonlinear behavior. A rest time of 2 h can be proposed, irrespective of battery health condition, considering neutral technology-based impedance measurement. An impedance growth in ohmic and charge transfer characteristics was found, due to aging, and the effect of rest periods was also analyzed from an electrochemical standpoint. This experimental data was fitted to develop an empirical model, which can predict the nonlinear dynamics of lithium technologies with a 4–8% relative error for longer rest time
Original languageEnglish
Article number77
Number of pages19
JournalWorld Electric Vehicle Journal
Volume12
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 17 May 2021

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