Impact of the initial clinical presentation on the outcome of patients with infective endocarditis

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BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a life-threatening disease. Despite advancements in diagnostic methods, the initial clinical presentation of IE remains a valuable asset. Therefore, the impact of clinical presentation on outcomes and its association with microorganisms and IE localization were assessed herein.

METHODS: This retrospective study included 183 patients (age 68.9 ± 14.2 years old, 68.9% men) with definite IE at two tertiary care hospitals in Belgium. Demographic data, medical history, clinical presentation, blood cultures, imaging data and outcomes were recorded.

RESULTS: In-hospital mortality rate was 22.4%. Sixty (32.8%) of the patients developed embolism, 42 (23%) shock, and 103 (56.3%) underwent surgery during hospitalization. Shock at admission predicted embolism during hospitalization (odds ratio [OR] 2.631, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.119-6.184, p = 0.027). A new cardiac murmur at admission predicted cardiac surgery (OR 1.949, 95% CI 1.007-3.774, p = 0.048). Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus predicted in-hospital mortality and shock (p = 0.005, OR 6.945, 95% CI 1.774-27.192 and p = 0.015, OR 4.691, 95% CI 1.348-16.322, respectively). Mitral valve and aortic valve IE respectively predicted in-hospital death (p = 0.039, OR 2.258, 95% CI 1.043-4.888) and embolism (p = 0.017, OR 2.328, 95% CI 1.163-4.659).

CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective study, shock at admission independently predicted embolism during hospitalization in IE patients. Moreover, a new cardiac murmur at admission predicted the need for cardiac surgery. This emphasizes the importance of a comprehensive initial clinical evaluation in combination with imaging and microbiological data, in order to identify high-risk IE patients early.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)385-390
Number of pages6
JournalCardiology Journal
Issue number3
Early online date9 Jul 2021
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Via Medica.

Copyright 2023 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • cardiac surgery
  • clinical presentation
  • in-hospital mortality
  • infective endocarditis


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